Employee Recruitment & Selection Processes

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Concept of recruitment

Recruitment is the process of attracting a person for employment within an organisation. It includes advertising in newspapers, on radio and television; distributing pamphlets and posters; interviewing prospective candidates to assess their suitability for the job; and finally offering employment to those selected. Recruitment has been defined as:

“The search for people whose qualifications are appropriate for the job in question, and who are willing to work at a suitable location, in return for adequate remuneration.

Concept of candidate: A candidate is someone who has applied for a job. Candidates can be assessed by using psychological tests or personality questionnaires known as assessment centres.

Factors affecting recruitment: The following are the factors affecting recruitment:

– Availability of jobs in relation to number of applicants (demand and supply). This factor depends on the current economic situation, which can be either strong or weak.

The stronger the economy is, the lower number of people will seek employment as there are more opportunities available for them. On the other hand, in a weak economy there is high demand for employment because fewer opportunities are available.

– The nature of the job itself, such as whether it needs training or not, physical strength and skill requirements, etc., will determine who is suitable to do the job.

Nature of job depends on the range and types of skills, ability and experience required in order to be able to perform the job effectively; whether there is a need for training or not; whether there are physical strength requirements or other special needs that candidates have to meet before they can do the job.

– Geographical location of recruitment – this might be important for example, if it is necessary to employ someone who can work in different countries or whose language skills are essential; or it could be deciding on the number of applicants a particular job is worth recruiting from abroad.

It depends on whether the organisation needs people with “local” knowledge or for specialist skills which are not available locally.

– The skills and qualifications that are essential for the job: In most organisations, information about how to apply is often only given out after the post has been advertised widely, so as to attract a large number of candidates.

The job may require someone with a certain level of education, such as university degree or equivalent professional qualification, or experience in the field being hired for.

Also, this may depend on the role within the organisation, the importance of doing certain things well so that they have a direct bearing on profitability etc.

For example, an accounting clerk needs someone who is skilled in mathematics to produce accurate accounts; but a receptionist or manual worker needs only to be able to do their work without making mistakes and preferably with some common sense.

– Employment trends and needs: This factor relates to what jobs are already available within the organisation or whether new jobs are being created; how quickly organisations need people to fill vacancies and for how long they will need them.

Employment trends are often related to the economic situation, so that when times are good organisations tend to recruit more people as there is increased demand for goods and services; but in bad economic conditions fewer jobs are available and fewer people apply for them.

– Recruitment policies: An organisation may have a set policy about the minimum educational and experience qualifications, which must be met by candidates before they can be considered for interview; whether an individual is suitable to work within the organisation, taking into account not just their skills and abilities but also their personality and character.

Recruitment policies decides whether certain candidates who meet the essential requirements can be interviewed or not; some organisations may have come up with their own recruiting policies which they will stick to, unless there is a good reason why it should be changed.

– Expenditure incurred in the recruitment: Some organisations may be willing to pay a higher salary than others for a particular job, which would increase cost of recruitment and reduce profits.

The amount of money spent on advertising for a particular job, or even on recruiting candidates from abroad to do it, depends on how urgent it is to fill that post.

If there are plenty of suitable applicants locally who can be interviewed and employed quickly then an organisation might not advertise widely and would spend little on recruitment; but if there are very few or none to be found locally then the organisation might advertise more widely in order to find a suitable candidate; and if it is necessary to recruit someone from abroad the expenditure incurred in doing so will be greater because of travelling expenses etc.

Employee Recruitment Process

Sources of recruitment and Recruitment Process

The recruitment process in most organizations is a very important activity that helps in identifying suitable people to fulfill the roles and responsibilities for which they are expected.

Recruitment though can also be one of the most problematic activities because it involves decisions affecting staff peace within the organization, customer relations and a possible increase or decrease in revenue.

Thus the decision making processes involved in recruitment can be very critical. With this in mind, this article seeks to find out how recruitment policy impacts on the position of a company.

The coming few lines are going to help you understand what recruiting is and why it is considered as one of the most important processes by any organization. The process through which an organization finds suitable candidates for a position is called recruitment.

Recruiting efforts by organizations are commonly intended to find the most suitable candidates who will perform their job in an excellent manner. What makes recruiting important?

Well, first and foremost, this process enables an organization to fulfill its needs for work force through applicants that have applied for jobs within it; so if a company hires only the best applicant for a job, then it will fulfill the need for such human resources.

Secondly recruitment also helps in preventing any form of internal and external recruitment which can pose a great threat to any organization’s security and integrity.

Another important reason why an organization needs to have the best recruiting process is because it attracts candidates that may be looking to move from one organization to another.

For example, your company may be looking for the best candidates who will put in their best quality work and stay with it in order to rise up the career ladder which means that they will not need to look elsewhere for better opportunities.

In fact they will have a higher loyalty towards you because they were found by you, so recruitment can also help an organization to have a better relationship with its employees.

In the same way, recruitment is very important in any company because it helps to save costs and time otherwise wasted in selecting candidates who may or may not be suitable for the job position advertised.

The process of recruiting is carried out at two levels which include internal and external recruitment. Internal recruitment is carried out by individuals within the company who are considered as members of a staff or management.

These individuals include HR managers, supervisors, line managers and recruiting personnel. External recruitment on the other hand involves individuals outside the organization such as advertising companies, employment agencies and head hunters.

The recruitment process involves finding suitable applicants for job positions in an organization. This process commonly requires help from other employees in the company including the HR staff and management, the recruitment team and job applicants.

The main goal of this process is to ensure that suitable candidates for a position are found by the organization as soon as possible. When organizations carry out an internal recruitment, they rely on their current or past employees who can help them find suitable applicants.

This means that these employees will have the ability to identify and direct applicants towards vacant positions or they may also use their networks to look for prospective job seekers who can be directed towards an open position.

The second internal recruitment method is carried out through referrals which involve current employees referring other employees (who are not currently employed) to the organization. The employees may refer their friends, family members and colleagues. However, this form of internal recruitment is not allowed by many organizations due to security reasons.

Another common way of finding suitable applicants for positions among job seekers is through public advertisement placed in newspapers, radios and websites advertising job openings that are open to any member of the public who can apply for it. This is the most common method used by organizations to carry out the external recruitment process. In this case, an organization advertises a position and any member of the public who meets the criteria set forth in the job description may apply for such position. The advantage of using advertisement as a way to find suitable candidates is that it offers a wide range of candidates to choose from and it is also the least expensive recruitment process that any organization can use.

Another method of finding suitable applicants in an organization is through employment agencies or head hunters who specialize in identifying potential job seekers who meet the qualifications set out by the company where they are looking for work. This method requires a fee to be paid to the employment agencies who receive a percentage of an applicant’s first year pay when they are recruited for a position. However, this method is not commonly used by many organizations because of its high fees and also because fewer applicants can be directly referred to the company by the employee.

Employment application forms: who you are and what you’ve done.

Employment application forms have become increasingly common in the past few years. They’re also a growing source of frustration for jobseekers – especially those with less-than-ideal work histories. Those who come to me seeking help often ask, “How do I handle an employment application form?” Here’s an answer.

First, the basics: The employment application form is a standardized document that’s handed out to all or most applicants for particular positions. It addresses two basic questions: (1) Who are you? and (2) What have you done ? It may also contain items relevant to determining if an applicant would make a good employee , such as questions about hobbies or volunteer work.

Who are you? – In part, a jobseeker’s answers to this question deal with such things as education (degrees earned, honors received), past and present employment, membership in professional organizations and public service activities. The form may also ask more personal questions: Are you married; have you ever been convicted of a crime; do you have children; what race are you? (or, depending on the job: Are you qualified for this position?) The employer may also delve into areas that could be considered “off limits” in a face-to-face interview. Do you like to party? How would your boss rate your work ethic? Do you consider yourself a team player or more of a loner?

What have you done? – This is the part that causes many applicants to scratch their heads. Often, there’s no logical transition from one item to another. For example: “Have you ever had any administrative experience?” “Are you good with numbers?” Your ability to answer these questions with confidence and without hesitation is critical. Otherwise, you could end up with a job for which you’re grossly overqualified or that doesn’t fit your skill set at all. Also, keep in mind that employers may be trying to trip you up by asking ambiguous questions that have no real right/wrong answers (e.g., “Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10 as an employee”).

What should you do? – Here are some techniques that have helped applicants successfully complete employment application forms:

  1. Identify the key areas the employer is likely to cover. These may include education, work experience (including part-time and volunteer activities), references and employment application questions. Make notes on each area and keep it handy while you’re completing the form.
  2. Go through your work history, both paid and volunteer, and put a check next to those jobs/activities that are most relevant to the position for which you’re applying. Remember, even if a job is not listed in the work history, you can still include it, as long as it has some relation to the position.
  3. Think about and write down your strongest skills and experience that relate to the particular job for which you are applying. Keep these skills/activities in mind when answering questions on education, work experience, references and employment application questions.
  4. Try to anticipate questions that may be difficult to answer. For example, if you don’t have any work experience, how do you respond to the question of prior employment? If you’ve been unemployed for a while, what’s your explanation for it ? How do you explain gaps in your resume between jobs or when jobs start/stop? If you have a lot of volunteer experience, how do you make it sound like “paid” work?
  5. Practice your answers until they’re seamless and convincing. In many cases, this is where an interviewer will clue in to a jobseeker’s lack of confidence or unwillingness to sell himself or herself.

Be prepared for the unexpected. If the employer asks an unusual question that’s not covered in your notes, just take a breath and respond with confidence. He/she may be testing you to see if you’ll answer honestly and thoughtfully (even if it’s not what he/she wants to hear). Also, keep in mind that sometimes there’s no right or wrong answer to an employment application question. Approach each question as if it were “open” instead of “closed” and do your best to give a straightforward answer.

If the application asks for salary history, don’t say anything. You can answer that question later when asked by the prospective employer.

Finally, if you’re applying for an internal promotion or transferring to another department within the same company, your application could be used to screen out candidates who are not qualified for the position. Even if you’re currently employed in a different department, it’s best to complete the form or the employer might assume you’re only applying because you lost your job at another branch of the company.

Selection Process

HR departments are a crucial part of the selection process. Because they have to work with so many candidates, it is important that they be familiar with the best practices for selecting employees. If you are an HR director or manager, this section will provide tips and tricks to help improve your department’s performance during the hiring process.

When you are hiring employees, try to think of what the company needs. Make a list of the qualities that you are looking for in an employee and then match candidates against this list. Candidates should be able to meet about 75% of all your criteria. Try to come up with something unique or interesting about their background so you can talk to them later regarding it. For example, if you were looking to hire an administrative assistant, you might want someone who is patient and friendly. An employee that has worked at a doctor’s office might be the best choice because she will have gained experience in a hectic environment by working with patients who tend to get “hangry” (a combination of hungry and angry.)

Employee Selection Process

When it comes to interviews, focus on the candidate’s prior experience. Do they have experience working in a similar setting? HR departments are often contacted by candidates who want to exaggerate their previous professional experience. Before you schedule an interview date, ask the candidate for documentation of his work history and qualifications. If possible talk to current employers or referrers. It is important that the candidate have credibility in your eyes before you invest too much time interviewing them.

HR departments need to consider diversity when hiring employees. Diversity can be based on race, religion, gender and sexual orientation among other things. When you are getting candidates for a position, balance them out as best you can so they come from a variety of backgrounds. If you are interviewing people for the same job, look for diversity in skill levels and experience. For example, if you have one candidate who has 10 years with the company and is line management material but he lacks interpersonal skills while another candidate has great interpersonal skills but no prior experience, both candidates can be hired into the same job and then be evaluated based on how they perform.

If you are not sure whether a candidate is suitable for the job, ask them about their goals in life and career. If the candidates dream job is to work for your company, he will work hard to make it happen. A person who has invested all of his time into doing well in school and getting a degree will be the perfect employee. However, if the candidate does not want the job or appears desperate for it, you might want to reconsider hiring them. People who are happy where they are and working with people that they like don’t have a reason to jump ship.

Try to take steps to weed out unqualified candidates early on in the process. HR professionals often receive applications from unqualified candidates. When you sift through a hundred people looking for one qualified applicant, it is easy to overlook someone who might be perfect for the job. To help with this problem, set up an interview time limit that is reasonable and try to stick to it. You can let phone callers know that you are only going to interview qualified candidates and that they should have a resume. This will filter out some of the unqualified applicants before you waste too much time looking through their applications.

How can you tell if someone is lying? You might think it is difficult to determine whether or not someone is telling the truth while in an interview, but you can tell a lot just from the way he speaks to you. People who are lying often speak very quickly or start with one word answers. They might seem nervous and fidgety. Their stories don’t fit together well and they have trouble answering questions directly.

People also tend to smile when they are telling the truth, so if a candidate’s face remains expressionless throughout the interview, you can be fairly sure he is hiding something.

One trick that helps determine whether or not a person is lying is to make him explain something that would be very difficult for them to fake. For example: If a man tells you that he has two children and one of them has a disease, you can ask him to describe the illness and symptoms. If he doesn’t know what it is or how to recognize it, there is a good chance that he does not have children at all.

Try to look for inconsistencies between what people say and how they say it. If you hear someone talking about their previous work experience, ask them questions about what they did and how long they did it. Look for changes in tone, word choice or facial expression while the candidate is explaining his experience. The more nervous he seems, the more likely that what he says does not match up with reality.

Good interviewers are able to make good decisions based on their gut reactions to moods and body language. For example, if the candidate appears sad throughout the entire interview, you might want to accept that fact and factor it into your final decision rather than looking for a more promising candidate.

Some recruiters utilize the services of psychics or mediums as a way to better understand what is going on with their candidates before they make hasty decisions. Psychics sometimes receive details from other realms and can relay that information to an interviewer. This type of feedback can help them make better hiring decisions.

Whatever you do, try not to let your emotions get the best of you when searching for a new employee. Take the time early on in the process to really evaluate all of your candidates and determine who is the best person for the job. Letting your emotions get involved with your hiring decisions can end up being a costly mistake, especially if you hire an improper person to work for you.



An interview is more than a mere chat to find out if the candidate is a right fit for the job, it’s an opportunity to make sure that the person interviewing has all their questions answered and that at least one of them doesn’t get into trouble afterwards.

Putting together guidelines on how interviews should be conducted at your company is indeed sensible. If you don’t know how to – here are some tips!

Tip #1: Set the right tone.

Take a moment before the interview starts and look at your subject with their eyes and body language in mind. Is there enough space for them to move around? Are they comfortable sitting like that? These things might not seem important, but in the long run, you’ll be surprised how much they affect your people’s productivity.

Tip #2: Believe in your superstars.

An interview is not a time to drill through a candidate like he or she’s going to “fall apart” if asked a question out of the blue. The most important thing for an interviewer is to know what their candidate is capable of and how to use that information at the workplace, not merely nitpicking on every little detail.

Tip #3: Let them talk about themselves.

A good interview requires you to both let your subject say as much as possible, but also ask the most relevant questions in order to get a better idea of how well they match the requirements of the job. If you let them speak freely, they’ll most likely share things that might not have been brought up otherwise, and that’s a part of their personality you shouldn’t miss out on.

Tip #4: Let them be themselves.

No matter what kind of company culture your organization is trying to build, let your employees be themselves in the interview. Being honest with yourself and others about who you are will help you build better relationships, which is, in return, a great way to advance professionally.

Tip #5: Never lie to them or try and surprise them.

In order to create trust that they’ll need at work directly after the interview, be honest with them about the job and the organization. There’s no point in trying to impress your candidate if later he or she realizes that what they thought was a “good fit” is in fact not.

Tip #6: Respect their time.

When planning an interview, respect your candidates’ needs . The last thing you want is a candidate that was “too busy” to fit in an interview (or worse, be late for it) and not only doesn’t get the job, but also comes across as unreliable.

Tip #7: Stick with your plan.

It’s fine if someone else is conducting the interview – just make sure you know what they’re going to be asking your candidate and stick to it. Otherwise, you’re not only going to confuse them, but also make it difficult for them to provide a proper answer.

Tip #8: Have the right people there.

There’s nothing worse than showing up at an interview with no one knowing what’s happening . Make sure each person involved in the interview knows what they should be doing and why, as well as how everything connects to the organization.

Tip #9: Don’t invite more people than necessary.

An interview is not a place for friends or family members of yours that “might help” you conduct it better . Although having someone else there can sometimes be a good idea, it doesn’t always add any value to the process, and in some cases, it can even hurt your candidate’s experience.

Tip #10: Ask questions that matter.

Never ask a question you or someone else could get an answer to with a simple Google search . If you have no idea what the right questions are supposed to be – start with the basics.

Tip #11: Send your candidate home with something useful.

Unless they specifically ask – never send a resume or any other documents to your interviewee after the interview . Instead, provide them with resources that will help them better prepare for the job and understand what’s expected of them in it (especially if this is their first job).

Tip #12: Don’t make things up.

As I’ve mentioned before, your interview questions need to be relevant . The same goes for the information you’ll inevitably provide about the company in the process (just do some simple research beforehand). It’s one thing if you’re revealing a new game changer strategy – it’s another if you’re simply creating a job opening out of thin air.

Tip #13: Bring some food and water for your candidate.

Last but not least – make sure your subject is comfortable . One of the main reasons why people feel uncomfortable in an interview is because they don’t know how long it’s going to take, so try and give them an estimate, followed by some food and drinks.

Types of Interviews:

You’ll need to conduct different types of interviews depending on a candidate’s professional experience. Here are the ones you should be looking into:

Phone interview . Your first screen for potential job applicants is, most likely, going to be a phone screening with your HR department or an experienced member of your team (the one who knows the most about the position). The questions you’ll ask should help you gain an insight into the candidate’s personality, skills, and professional background.

Tip: Tailor your interview to your organization’s culture – don’t overdo it with technical or HR-related questions for example.

Social Media Interview . This type of screening is a more recent addition to the recruiting world. As the title suggests, you’re going to be looking at a person’s social media profiles , as well as links and posts they’ve made in forums or groups (Facebook is your best bet here).

Tip: Don’t start with the obvious – Google the candidate first. Look for any red flags, and then decide if it’s worth following a social media trail.

Technical Interview . This type of interview is by far the most common one any job seeker will encounter. You’re going to be assessing their technical skills (usually, you’ll provide them with a tech task).

Tip: Don’t have someone else do this part – make sure it’s you personally doing the interview.

Behavioral Interview . The main idea behind this type of interview is that the way a person behaves under certain circumstances (for example, when dealing with an irate customer) will show whether or not they’re going to be successful in a certain role.

Tip: Design your own behavioral questions – don’t just read them off some website.

Panel Interview . While this type of interview is most commonly used to assess candidates for mid and senior level positions, it can also be helpful when determining the potential of a first-timer.

Tip: Try and make your team members as diverse as possible – hiring a white male without any experience in diversity will not only hurt your company’s image, but you’ll also be missing great candidates.

Candidate-to-Candidate Interview . This type of interview is often used when a company is trying to determine if two candidates’ personalities will work together in harmony. Not every organization needs this, but…

Tip: Try and mix things up – instead of asking the same questions over and over again, give your candidates a chance to ask each other questions.

The job shadowing interview . While this type of interview is more commonly used in retail or hospitality business settings, it can be helpful in pretty much any other business environment.

Tip: Make sure that you’re the one following your candidate around – you’ll be able to notice things they may not mention during an interview. For example, if someone’s constantly texting on their phone, or answering a phone call in the middle of an important meeting… it could mean trouble down the road.

The non-interview interview . This type of an interview is very similar to a phone screening with a few small differences: instead of asking prepared questions, you’re just going to be talking about anything that comes naturally (family, hobbies, etc.). You should also use this chance to find out what your candidate thinks about your company – if they know anything about it.

Tip: Don’t let your target run out of things to say – help them stay on track with a question or two every now and then. And ask follow-up questions too.

The non-phone interview . This type of an interview is relatively new, but gaining in popularity as more and more companies are starting to go remote. Some of the most commonly used methods here include:  Skype, FaceTime, Google Hangouts…

Tip: The same rules apply here as in a regular interview – make sure your candidate stays on track with their answers, and ask follow-up questions too.

The Takeaways

It doesn’t matter whether you’re trying to find a new salesperson, or if you have a job opening in IT; the one thing that will always stay the same is the interview. Be it behavioral questions, or technical ones – your goal is to determine if the candidate can do the job well. While there are hundreds of different ways to conduct a successful interview, these (in my opinion) are the best ones… because they actually work.

What’s more, remember that at the end of the day, it doesn’t matter how your candidate does on an interview – what matters is not whether or not you liked them personally, but whether or not they can do the job well .


Evaluation, Placement and Induction: Guidelines for HR Departments

The two key factors that influence an employees’ performance are the employee’s ability to apply his skills and knowledge in an appropriate manner, and the commitment shown by the individual to undertake this task.

To achieve a productive work force there is a need for managing manpower deployment with due consideration given to both of these factors. The entire placement and induction of new recruits is the key element to managing work force deployment in an organisation.

Manpower requirements for any organisation can be visualised as a pyramid with management at the apex, and new recruits at the bottom. Flexibility in this pyramid, caused by vertical and lateral movement throughout the organisational structure is responsible for ensuring that all work tasks are effectively performed to meet customer requirements.

An efficient manpower deployment approach should contain two distinct phases:

a) Selecting and placing employees who possess the relevant skills and experience

b) Helping these employees to be effective in their jobs.

Selection Procedure

The selection procedure in an organisation should ensure that the best possible candidate is selected for a particular job. For this purpose, strict adherence to procedural aspects is followed. In addition, as part of the selection procedure the organisation also ensures that a candidate is aware of the job requirements before he has to make a commitment. HR departments are responsible for ensuring that, in addition to following proper procedures for selecting candidates, provision is made to ensure that candidates:

  • Are aware of the work conditions
  • Are aware of work environment factors
  • Have an opportunity to try out the job before deciding
  • Are aware of their role in the organisation’s performance.

Placement Procedure

An effective employee is one who has been placed at a post that matches not only his qualification and experience, but also his skills. The work attitude and capability of an employee depend on the job satisfaction that he derives from his placement. This is ensured through an effective placement procedure.

To ensure that employees are not placed at a post where they do not have the required skills or experience, an organisation should conduct proper employee assessment prior to a new recruit joining the workplace. The entire process of addressing individual requirements through performance management and skill development should form part of the recruitment and placement procedure.

Performance Management Process

A performance management process that is not tied to reward systems can lead to demotivation rather than motivation. A performance appraisal system should have three basic elements:

– Objective Setting

This ensures that periodic objectives are set for each employee. Such an objective should be sufficiently challenging in order to promote commitment to achieving it.

Objectives are the targets set for an employee. These should be challenging but achievable and measurable in terms of the quantifiable work results that can be obtained by achieving it. Experts suggest that the following aspects should be considered while setting a performance objective:

  • Goal statement – This is a succinct statement defining what has to be achieved and when.
  • Task description – This is a clear and precise statement of what the employee has to achieve in order to meet the goal.
  • Action plan – This specifies work activities that need to be performed by the employee as well as how they have to be performed. It should also specify key performance indicators (KPI) against which actual performance will be measured against the set target for performance appraisal.
  • Monitoring plan – This provides an effective mechanism for monitoring and controlling implementation of the assigned work, besides reviewing progress on an ongoing basis.
  • Evaluation method – This specifies what can be used to evaluate performance. It should also specify how evaluation will take place, including when it would be done and by whom.

– Performance Appraisal

This is an evaluation of actual performance as against the set objectives, and a comparison with the performance standard.

This refers to an evaluation of actual performance as against the set targets, and a comparison with the standard set for the individual employee. This is done at frequent intervals, usually every six months. For this purpose, experts recommend that three important questions should be answered:

  • What did he do?
  • How did he do it?
  • What was the result?

Performance appraisal, experts say, should be a continuous process and not an annual review. In order to avoid any bias, it should be done by someone who is not related to or known to the employee being appraised. The performance appraisal procedure can follow three models:

  • Objective model – This suggests that the appraisal of performance is based on specific criteria. The appraiser may also set targets for improvement to be achieved in subsequent periods.
  • Relative model – In this approach, the relative performance is compared with that of other employees who have a similar job description and work experience. Such comparisons ensure equal treatment of employees but lead to demotivation if targets are not achieved.
  • 360 degree model – This approach ensures that performance is appraised by those on the same level and above as well as below. The method of assessment can either be formal or informal, depending on how it is conducted within an organisation.

Investment in employee skills development should cover not only technical training, but also social skills development. This will allow employees to function more effectively in the team environment and nurture their commitment levels.

– Decisions on corrective action based on employee’s performance.

Punishments vs Rewards:

Punishments are not always a solution for management as it is often seen that managers tend to avoid punishments due to its risks of demotivating an individual or group rather than motivating them. It is also seen that punishments are not very effective in improving performance as well.

However, rewards can be used to set an example for others or to correct a particular individual’s behavior and improve his performance. It is often seen that if the reward is at hand for anyone who can do something better than anybody else, it will motivate him towards perfection.

For example, if an individual is a slow learner and the manager rewards him by letting him know that his performance has been better than another’s in the team or department, then it will speed up his learning process. But on the other hand, if he is a fast learner and can do something faster than others, then he will continue to do the good job which he is being rewarded for and try to improve his performance in that particular area.

Furthermore, it should be ensured that an individual gets rewarded naturally or automatically. This will avoid any kind of favoritism as well as biasness in rewarding one over the other. It should also ensure that no one feels left out.


Motivation is defined as the driving force that puts energy into action and enables it to be sustained in a certain direction. Therefore, motivation is not an isolated event but a continuous process that takes place throughout one’s life span. It refers to a condition whereby a person is prepared psychologically and physiologically for the utilization of his abilities to perform. It involves the creation of a mental set towards goal-directed behaviors.

Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic, but in most cases it is both. This means that each individual has his own inner drive to perform well and also responds to stimulation from the environment/managerial system. The following are some factors that can have a positive influence on motivation:

  • Ability to make decisions and participate in decision-making.

“• Self-confidence.  (Belief that one can do well)  • Ability to use knowledge and skills effectively.”

In the end, it is clear that management can use a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to achieve the best results – by motivating employees with respect to their needs, and encouraging them to work hard for its own sake.

The Importance of Employee Selection:

Employee selection is critical in ensuring adequate human resources are available at all times. It involves using techniques for choosing people who have the ability, knowledge, skills and talent to perform the job for which they are being selected. In general, there are two types of selection:

Selection is closely related to recruitment in that it involves hiring new employees and then having them go through selection processes. There is a series of steps involved in the process, starting with objective setting and ending with finalizing employment contracts. However, there are many other steps in between.

Management Systems:

A good management system requires that each employee’s performance is measured on a regular basis. The information provided by this measurement can be used to inform the manager concerning what changes need to be made to improve business. It is done using a variety of tools and techniques such as rating scales or evaluation forms, which provide management with information about each employee’s performance. These measurements are used for appraisals and reward system as well. Appraisal is an ongoing communication between the manager and the employee regarding his performance in a particular work area. A good appraisal system must be based on clear objectives of what is expected from employees, which is determined during the job description stage.

The most widely used and frequently applied evaluation techniques are:

Employee performance appraisal has been a debatable issue to date. There is a continuous debate on whether employee review is necessary or not, and whether it should be positive or negative, as well as on which criteria and subsequent scales should be used for evaluating performance. Many companies apply both a numerical rating system and an overall category rating system to assess their employees’ performance, in order to have a balanced view of the employee’s worth.

An effective management system provides the manager with information concerning his employees’ strengths and weaknesses. It also alerts him to problems that are occurring in his team as well as to the potential problems caused by certain individuals. This information can be used to make decisions about promotion and reward, or about dismissal if necessary.

Another important role of an effective management system is that it provides the employees with information as well. Each person has his own objectives and personal needs. If a job is done properly, then these are met, while poor performance can result in dissatisfaction and a decrease in motivation.

In order to ensure that the right decisions are being made based on this information, it is important for management to be objective as much as possible. This means that they must shield themselves from personal biases (real or perceived) and not make final decisions until all of the facts have been collected and analyzed.

Personal biases can have a major impact on how information is interpreted, which is why it is important to avoid them. To do so, management should:

There are two basic types of reward system that are used in an effective management system: financial and non-financial. Financial rewards generally involve some form of compensation such as pay raises, bonuses or promotions. Non-financial rewards can include such things as praise and recognition for a job well done.

Financial reward systems are typically based on merit. This means that employees who perform better than their peers will usually get rewarded more than those who do not perform as well. In some cases, management might have to make a judgment call as to whether an employee performed better than his peers or not. However, if the evaluation process is effective and objective, then they should have a reasonable amount of confidence that their judgment will be based on fact, not opinion.


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