I. What is Organizational Behavior?
Organizational behavior is the study of how individuals and groups act within organizations. It focuses on understanding and managing people at work. The goal of organizational behavior is to help organizations become more effective by improving the way they operate.
The Importance of Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior is important because it helps managers to understand how employees think, feel, and behave. This knowledge can then be used to make better decisions about how to motivate and manage employees. Organizational behavior also helps managers to understand how different types of people interact with each other. This understanding can help managers build better teams and foster a more positive work environment.
History of Organizational Behavior
The field of organizational behavior began in the early 1900s with the work of Max Weber, a German sociologist. Weber was interested in understanding how organizations functioned and how they could be made more efficient. He wrote about bureaucracy, which is a type of organization characterized by hierarchies, rules, and procedures.
In the 1930s, another German sociologist, Georg Simmel, wrote about conflict within organizations. His work helped to establish the field of industrial sociology.
In the 1940s and 1950s, two American psychologists, Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg, studied motivation at work. They found that people are motivated by different things at different times. Maslow’s work led to the development of the “hierarchy of needs” theory, which is still used today to understand and manage employee motivation.
Herzberg’s work led to the development of the “job satisfaction-job dissatisfaction” model, which is also still used today.
In the 1960s, another American psychologist, Douglas McGregor, developed the “theory X and theory Y” model of employee motivation. This model has been used extensively to understand and manage employee behavior.
In the 1970s, an Australian psychologist, Fred Luthans, developed the concept of “organizational climate.” Climate is the overall feeling that employees have about their organization. It includes factors such as the way people are treated, the level of trust, and the level of support.
In the 1980s, an American sociologist, James O’Toole, wrote about “corporate culture.” Culture is the shared values, beliefs, and norms that characterize an organization. It has a strong influence on the way people behave at work.
In the 1990s, an American psychologist, Robert Katz, developed the “skills-based” view of organizations. This view emphasizes that organizations are composed of people with different skills who must work together to achieve success.
In the 2000s, two American sociologists, Ronald Burt and Mark Granovetter, wrote about “social networks.” Social networks are the relationships between people within organizations. They can have a strong influence on the way people behave at work.
Major Contributors to the Field of Organizational Behavior
There are many different theorists who have contributed to the field of organizational behavior. Some of the most important contributors include:
Frederick Taylor: Frederick Taylor was an early advocate of scientific management. He believed that work should be analyzed and organized in the most efficient way possible. Taylor’s ideas had a major impact on the field of organizational behavior.
Elton Mayo: Elton Mayo was a researcher who studied the effects of work conditions on employee productivity. His research showed that employees were more productive when they felt like they were part of a team. This finding led to the development of theories about job satisfaction and motivation.
Chester Barnard: Chester Barnard was an early theorist who studied how organizations function. He argued that organizations are cooperative systems in which people work together to achieve common goals. Barnard’s ideas laid the foundation for later theories about organizational structure and design.
Max Weber: Max Weber was a German sociologist who studied the effects of bureaucracy on organizations. He argued that bureaucracy can lead to efficient and effective organizations. However, he also warned that bureaucracy can stifle creativity and innovation.
Current Trends in Organizational Behavior
There are several current trends in organizational behavior that are worth mentioning.
1. There is a growing emphasis on diversity.
Organizations are becoming more diverse in terms of the types of people they employ. This includes factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and age. Diversity brings different perspectives and ideas to organizations, which can make them more creative and innovative.
However, diversity can also bring challenges. For example, people from different groups may have difficulty communicating and working together. There may also be conflict over different values and beliefs. Organizations need to manage diversity carefully to make sure that it enhances their performance.
Diversity is an increasingly important issue in the workplace. Organizations are becoming more diverse in terms of the types of people they employ. This includes factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and age. Diversity brings different perspectives and ideas to organizations, which can make them more creative and innovative.
However, diversity can also bring challenges. For example, people from different groups may have difficulty communicating and working together. There may also be conflict over different values and beliefs. Organizations need to manage diversity carefully to make sure that it enhances their performance.
Diversity can be an important asset for organizations. When managed effectively, it can lead to increased creativity and innovation. However, diversity can also bring challenges. Organizations need to be aware of these potential challenges and take steps to manage diversity in a way that maximizes its benefits.
2. here is a trend towards using positive reinforcement rather than negative reinforcement.
This means that organizations are focusing on rewarding employees for good performance, rather than punishing them for bad performance. This approach is based on the idea that it is more effective to motivate people by giving them rewards, rather than by threatening them with punishment.
Positive reinforcement can take many forms, such as financial bonuses, promotions, and praise. It can be an effective way to motivate employees and improve performance. However, it is important to use positive reinforcement in the right way. For example, if rewards are given for something that is not actually desired or valuable, then they will not be effective.
3. There is a trend towards more participative leadership.
This means that leaders are involving employees in decision-making more than they used to. Participative leadership can lead to better decisions because it takes into account the ideas and perspectives of a wider range of people. It can also Motivate employees and build their commitment to the organization.
However, participative leadership is not always appropriate. For example, if decisions need to be made quickly, then involving employees in the decision-making process may slow things down. Also, not all employees will want to be involved in decisions. Leaders need to carefully consider whether participative leadership is the best approach in a given situation.
4. There is a trend towards more flexible work arrangements.
This means that organizations are giving employees more freedom and flexibility in how they work. For example, they may allow employees to work from home, set their own hours, or take time off when they need it. Flexible work arrangements can improve employee satisfaction and motivation. They can also lead to better work-life balance for employees.
However, flexible work arrangements can also be disruptive to an organization. For example, if everyone is working different hours, it can be difficult to coordinate work. Flexible work arrangements also require trust between employees and managers. If managers do not trust that employees will work hard when they are not being watched, then they may not be willing to give them the freedom to work flexibly.
Organizations need to carefully consider whether flexible work arrangements are right for them. They need to balance the benefits and potential drawbacks of this type of arrangement.
5. There is a trend towards using employee empowerment.
This means giving employees more control over their work and decision-making. Empowerment can lead to higher levels of job satisfaction and motivation, as well as to improved performance.
However, empowerment can also be disruptive. It can lead to conflict if employees are not given the right amount of responsibility. Also, empowering employees requires trust. Managers need to trust that employees will make good decisions and do their best work when they are given more freedom.
6. There is a trend towards increasing transparency in organizations.
This means making information available to employees that was previously hidden or difficult to obtain. Transparency can increase trust and communication within organizations. It can also lead to better decision-making, as employees have access to more information.
However, transparency can also be disruptive. It can lead to conflict if employees feel that they are being treated unfairly. Also, transparent organizations need to be able to handle criticism and negative feedback from employees.
7. There is a growing emphasis on globalism.
Organizations are increasingly operating in multiple countries. This requires them to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences. It also requires them to manage employees who may be located in different parts of the world.
Globalism can lead to increased business opportunities and growth. It can also improve communication and understanding between people from different cultures. However, globalism can also be disruptive. It can lead to conflict if employees feel that they are being treated unfairly. Also, transparent organizations need to be able to handle criticism and negative feedback from employees.
8. There is a growing emphasis on technology.
Organizations are using technology in new and innovative ways to improve their operations. This includes things such as social media, big data, and cloud computing.
Technology can lead to increased efficiency and productivity. It can also improve communication and understanding between people from different cultures. However, technology can also be disruptive. It can lead to conflict if employees feel that they are being treated unfairly. Also, transparent organizations need to be able to handle criticism and negative feedback from employees.
9. There is a growing emphasis on ethics.
Organizations are under increasing pressure to operate in an ethical manner. This includes things such as environmental sustainability, fair labor practices, and corporate social responsibility.
Ethical organizations can lead to increased public trust. They can also improve communication and understanding between people from different cultures. However, ethical organizations can also be disruptive. It can lead to conflict if employees feel that they are being treated unfairly. Also, transparent organizations need to be able to handle criticism and negative feedback from employees.
10. There is a growing emphasis on talent management.
Organizations are becoming more aware of the importance of attracting, developing, and retaining talented employees. They are using various tools and strategies to identify, attract, develop, and retain talent.
Effective talent management can lead to increased efficiency and productivity. It can also improve communication and understanding between people from different cultures. However, Talent management can also be disruptive. It can lead to conflict if employees feel that they are being treated unfairly. Also, transparent organizations need to be able to handle criticism and negative feedback from employees.
11. There is a growing emphasis on collaborative work.
Organizations are encouraging employees to work together in teams. This includes things such as project-based work, cross-functional teams, and virtual teams.
Collaborative work can lead to increased creativity and innovation. It can also improve communication and understanding between people from different cultures. However, collaborative work can also be disruptive. It can lead to conflict if employees feel that they are being treated unfairly. Also, transparent organizations need to be able to handle criticism and negative feedback from employees.
These are just a few of the current trends in organizational behavior. Organizations are continually changing and evolving, so it is important to stay up-to-date on the latest trends.
The Future of Organizational Behavior
The future of organizational behavior is likely to be influenced by the same factors that are influencing it today. These include globalization, technology, diversity, and ethics. Organizations will need to continue to adapt to these changes in order to be successful in the future.
Organizations will need to be more global in their outlook. They will need to be able to operate effectively in different cultures. Technology will continue to change the way that organizations operate. They will need to be able to use new technologies to improve their operations.
Diversity will continue to be an important issue for organizations. They will need to be able to manage a workforce that is diverse in terms of age, race, gender, and culture. Ethics will also continue to be an important issue for organizations. They will need to operate in an ethical manner in order to maintain public trust.
The Essence of Organizational Behavior: People in Organizations
The goal of organizational behavior research is to provide a better understanding of human behavior in organizations and to develop theories that can be used to improve the effectiveness of organizations. Organizational behavior scholars study a wide range of topics, including individual attitudes and behaviors, group dynamics, leadership, power and politics, work-family issues, diversity, ethics, and globalization.
There are many different perspectives on organizational behavior. The three most common perspectives are the individual level, the group level, and the organizational level.
The individual level perspective focuses on the behavior of individuals within organizations. This perspective is concerned with understanding how individual psychological factors such as personality, attitudes, and emotions affect behavior.
The group level perspective focuses on the behavior of groups within organizations. This perspective is concerned with understanding how group dynamics such as Norms, Roles, and Communication affect behavior.
The organizational level perspective focuses on the behavior of organizations as a whole. This perspective is concerned with understanding how organizational structures and processes such as culture, climate, and change affect behavior.
Basic Concepts in Organizational Behavior
There are several key concepts that are important to understanding organizational behavior. These concepts include:
Individual differences refer to the ways in which people differ from each other. Things like personality, intelligence, and emotional intelligence all contribute to individual differences.
Diversity refers to the ways in which people differ from each other in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, age, etc.
Perception is the process of interpreti ng the sensory information that we take in. Our perceptions can be affected by our biases and filters.
Attribution is the process of making inferences about why people behave the way they do. We often attribute other people’s behavior to their personality or character when in reality it may be due to situational factors.
Motivation is what drives people to action. There are different theories of motivation that attempt to explain what motivates people. Needs-based theories of motivation are based on the idea that people are motivated by certain basic needs. Process-based theories of motivation focus on how people make choices about what to do.
Emotion is a complex psychological state that includes both physiological and cognitive components. Emotions can have a powerful impact on our behavior.
Stress is a response to an external demand or pressure. Stress can be either positive or negative. Positive stress, or eustress, can motivate us to perform at our best. Negative stress, or distress, can lead to physical and emotional problems.
Work-life balance refers to the need to maintain a healthy balance between work and the rest of our lives. With the increasing demands of work and family, it can be difficult to find time for other important things like hobbies, exercise, and relaxation.
Organizational culture is the shared values, beliefs, and norms that define a company or organization. Culture can have a strong influence on behavior.
Change is a constant in organizations. Change can be either planned or unplanned. Managing change effectively is a key challenge for leaders.
Organizational politics refers to the ways in which people use power and influence to get things done in organizations. Politics can be positive or negative depending on how it is used.
Conflict is a disagreement between two or more people. Conflict can be either functional or dysfunctional. Functional conflict is necessary for groups to make decisions and solve problems. Dysfunctional conflict can lead to communication breakdowns and decreased productivity.
Organizational structure refers to the way that an organization is set up. The structure of an organization can have a big impact on how it functions.
Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve goals. There are different styles of leadership and different theories of leadership. The most effective leaders are able to adapt their style to the situation.
Communication is the process of sending and receiving information. Communication can be verbal or nonverbal. Effective communication is essential for businesses to function properly.
Teamwork is the process of working together to achieve a common goal. Teams can be either formal or informal. Formal teams are created by an organization, while informal teams spontaneously form as people work together. Effective teamwork requires good communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution skills.
Decision making is the process of choosing between two or more options. Decision making can be either rational or emotional. Rational decision making is based on logic and facts, while emotional decision making is based on our feelings and values.
Personality is a person’s unique psychological makeup. It includes things like attitudes, values, and beliefs. Personality affects how we interact with others and how we respond to different situations.
Attitudes are our evaluations of people, objects, or events. They can be positive or negative. Attitudes influence our behavior. For example, if we have a positive attitude towards our job, we are more likely to be motivated to do our best work.
Values are our beliefs about what is important in life. They guide our behavior and decision-making. For example, if we value honesty, we are more likely to behave honestly in our work.
Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions. People with high emotional intelligence are good at handling relationships and managing stress.
The Research Process in Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior research is conducted using a scientific method. This means that researchers test hypotheses through careful observation and measurement. Researchers use both quantitative and qualitative methods to study organizational behavior.
Quantitative methods involve the use of numbers and statistical analysis. Qualitative methods involve the use of observational techniques and in-depth interviews.
Organizational behavior research has yielded many important findings about how people behave in organizations. This research has led to the development of theories that help explain and predict behavior.
Organizational behavior is a broad field that includes many different areas of study. The most common focus of OB research is on individual-level phenomena, such as personality, attitudes, emotions, and perceptions. Other common areas of focus include group-level phenomena (such as team dynamics and conflict), and organizational-level phenomena (such as culture and structure).
OB research can be divided into three main categories:
1. Descriptive research: This type of research seeks to describe organizational phenomena. It is typically used to generate hypotheses about how different factors influence behavior.
2. Predictive research: This type of research seeks to predict future behavior. It is typically used to test hypotheses about how different factors influence behavior.
3. Explanatory research: This type of research seeks to explain why organizational phenomena occur. It is typically used to test theories about how different factors influence behavior.
Organizational behavior is a complex field, and there are many different variables that can affect behavior. The most important thing for researchers to remember is that no single factor ever determines behavior. Instead, it is the interaction of many different factors that determines behavior. OB research is ongoing, and new discoveries are constantly being made about how people behave in organizations.
How Is Organizational Behavior Relevant to Managers?
Organizational behavior is relevant to managers because it can help them understand and predict employee behavior. This knowledge can be used to improve organizational performance.
Managers can use organizational behavior concepts to:
Understand why employees behave the way they do – Organizational behavior can help managers understand why employees behave the way they do. By understanding employee behavior, managers can make better decisions about how to motivate and manage employees.
Motivate employees – Managers can use organizational behavior concepts to motivate employees. For example, if a manager understands that employees are motivated by recognition and rewards, they can create a work environment that provides these things.
Improve communication and teamwork – Organizational behavior can also help managers improve communication and teamwork. By understanding how employees communicate and work together, managers can make changes to improve these processes.
Build better relationships with employees – Organizational behavior can help managers build better relationships with employees. By understanding employee behavior, managers can learn how to better communicate and connect with employees.
Handle conflict effectively – Organizational behavior can also help managers handle conflict effectively. By understanding how employees respond to conflict, managers can make changes to the work environment to reduce or eliminate conflict.
Make better decisions – Finally, organizational behavior can help managers make better decisions. By understanding how employees think and behave, managers can make more informed decisions about issues like staffing, training, and product development.
Recap (Introduction to Organizational Behavior)
Organizational behavior is the study of how people behave in organizations. It covers a wide range of topics, including motivation, emotion, stress, work-life balance, organizational culture, change, organizational politics, conflict, leadership, communication, teamwork, and decision making. Organizational behavior is a field of study that has emerged from the intersection of psychology and sociology. OB research is typically conducted in laboratory or field settings. The goal of OB research is to understand and predict human behavior in organizations.
OB is relevant to managers because it can help them understand and predict employee behavior. This knowledge can be used to improve organizational performance. Managers can use OB concepts to improve communication, teamwork, decision making, and conflict resolution. In addition, OB can help managers build better relationships with employees and motivate them to achieve their best work.
II. Individual Behavior in the Workplace
1. Definition of Attitudes: An attitude is a learned tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitudes are not permanent, they can change over time.
2. Functions of Attitudes: The three primary functions of attitudes are adjustment, self-expression, and knowledge.
3. Work Attitudes: The three most important work attitudes are job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation.
4. Predictors of Work Attitudes: There are two primary predictors of work attitudes: job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
a. Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the extent to which an individual enjoys his or her work. It is a positive attitude towards one’s job. Job satisfaction is determined by a variety of factors, including pay, working conditions, supervision, and the opportunity to use one’s skills and abilities.
b. Organizational Commitment: Organizational commitment is the extent to which an individual identifies with a particular organization and its goals. It is a strong belief in an organization’s values and mission. Organizational commitment is determined by a variety of factors, including pay, working conditions, job satisfaction, and organizational culture.
5. Measuring Attitudes: There are a number of ways to measure attitudes, including surveys, interviews, focus groups, and observations.
6. Changing Attitudes: Attitudes can be changed through education, persuasion, or coercion. Education involves providing information that changes the way people think about a particular issue. Persuasion involves changing people’s attitudes by appealing to their emotions or using social pressure. Coercion involves using force or threats to change people’s attitudes.
1. Definition of Perception: Perception is the process of interpreting, organizing, and selecting information from the environment. Perception is influenced by a variety of factors, including the perceiver’s needs, motives, and biases.
2. Factors That Influence Perception: The three primary factors that influence perception are the perceiver’s needs, motives, and biases.
3. The Perceptual Process: The perceptual process includes four steps: selection, organization, interpretation, and recall.
4. Consequences of inaccurate Perception: Inaccurate perception can lead to a number of consequences, including misunderstanding, conflict, and poor decision-making.
1. Definition of Personality trait theory, the “Big Five” personality traits, and emotional intelligence: Personality trait theory is the study of personality traits, or the consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make up an individual’s personality. The “Big Five” personality traits are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions.
2. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test that is used to identify an individual’s personality type. The MBTI includes four different dichotomies: extraversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving.
3. The Relationship between Personality and Job Performance: There is a positive relationship between certain personality traits and job performance. For example, individuals who are high in conscientiousness tend to be more successful in their jobs than those who are low in conscientiousness.
4. Using Personality Tests in Organizations: Personality tests can be used in organizations to identify individuals who are likely to be successful in a particular job. However, it is important to note that personality tests should not be used to make hiring decisions, as they are not always accurate predictors of job performance.
1. Definition of Emotions and Moods: Emotions are short-lived, intense feelings that are triggered by a particular event or situation. Moods are more long-lasting, less intense emotions.
2. The Role of Emotions in the Workplace: Emotions play an important role in the workplace, as they can influence an individual’s job satisfaction, job performance, and interactions with others.
3a. Positive Emotions at Work (Eustress and Engagement): Positive emotions such as eustress and engagement can lead to increased job satisfaction and performance.
3b. Negative Emotions at Work (Distress): Negative emotions such as distress can lead to decreased job satisfaction and performance.
4. Coping with Stressful Situations: There are a number of ways to cope with stressful situations, including problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.
1. Definition of Values: Values are beliefs that guide an individual’s behavior.
2. Types of Values: There are two types of values: terminal values and instrumental values. Terminal values are desired end-states, such as happiness or freedom. Instrumental values are means to achieve terminal values, such as honesty or courage.
3. The Influence of Values on Behavior in Organizations: Values play an important role in organizational behavior, as they can influence an individual’s attitudes, job satisfaction, and work motivation.
4. Managing Value Conflict: When individuals in an organization have different values, it can lead to value conflict. Value conflict can be managed through a number of methods, including education, communication, and conflict resolution procedures.
F. Perception, Attitudes, and Values across Cultures
1. Culture: Culture is the system of shared beliefs, values, norms, and patterns of behavior that characterizes a group of people.
2. Hofstede’s Five Dimensions of National Culture: Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture are power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation.
3. The GLOBE Study of Cultural Dimensions: The GLOBE study is a large-scale research project that examined the relationship between cultural values and organizational practices in 62 countries.
4. Managing Diversity in the Workplace: Diversity management is the process of creating an inclusive work environment where all employees feel valued and respected. Diversity management includes a number of activities, such as workforce planning, training and development, and communication.
Recap (Individual Behavior in the Workplace)
Individual Behavior in the Workplace can be explained by a number of factors, including personality, emotions, values, and perception. Personality is the set of characteristics that makes an individual unique. Emotions are short-lived, intense feelings that are triggered by a particular event or situation. Values are beliefs that guide an individual’s behavior. Perception is the process by which individuals interpret and make sense of their environment. Attitudes are evaluations of people, objects, or events. Culture is the system of shared beliefs, values, norms, and patterns of behavior that characterizes a group of people.
III. Group Behavior
A. Fundamentals of Group Dynamics
1. Definition of a Group and Types of Groups :
A group is a collection of two or more individuals who interact with each other to achieve a common goal. Groups are formed for a variety of reasons, including work, school, family, and friends. There are four main types of groups: formal, informal, command, and task.
Formal groups are created by an organization to help members complete their work tasks. Examples of formal groups include committees, departments, and teams. Informal groups are not created by an organization but emerge spontaneously as people interact with each other. Friendships and study groups are examples of informal groups.
Command groups are typically found in the military and give orders to members to complete specific tasks. Task groups are organized to accomplish a specific goal or task and typically disband after the task is completed. Project teams and cross-functional teams are examples of task groups.
2. Stages in Group Development (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning):
Groups go through a number of stages as they develop. The first stage is forming, during which members are just getting to know each other and starting to work together. The second stage is storming, during which members may butt heads as they start to establish their roles and figure out how to work together. The third stage is norming, during which members come to agreement on how to work together and start to cooperate. The fourth stage is performing, during which the group functions smoothly and efficiently. The final stage is adjourning, during which the group disbands.
3. Characteristics of Effective Teams:
There are a number of characteristics that effective teams typically have in common. These include having a clear purpose, being committed to each other and the team’s goals, being willing to hold each other accountable, being open to feedback, and being able to have difficult conversations with each other.
4a. Cohesiveness (Factors That Increase and Decrease Cohesiveness):
Cohesiveness is the force that holds a group together. There are a number of factors that can increase or decrease cohesiveness. Factors that increase cohesiveness include task interdependence, social interdependence, proximity, similarity, and need for affiliation. Task interdependence is when members’ work tasks are interconnected and dependent on each other. Social interdependence is when members have personal relationships with each other. Proximity is when members are physically close to each other. Similarity is when members have similar characteristics, such as age, race, or gender. Need for affiliation is when members have a strong need to be accepted and belong to the group.
Factors that decrease cohesiveness include competition, individualism, size, status differences, and time. Competition is when members are in competition with each other rather than working together cooperatively. Individualism is when members prioritize their own needs over the needs of the group. Size is when the group is too large for members to get to know each other well. Status differences are when there are significant differences in status between members, such as between a manager and an entry-level employee. Time is when the group has been together for a long time and members have become complacent.
Groupthink is a phenomenon that can occur in groups where members place their loyalty to the group above their own judgment and decision-making abilities. This can lead to poor decision-making as members conform to what they think the group wants rather than critically evaluating different options.
4c. Group Size
Group size is the number of members in a group. Groups can be small, medium, or large. Small groups typically have between two and five members. Medium groups typically have between six and ten members. Large groups typically have more than ten members.
4d. Group Structure
Group structure refers to the way that a group is organized. The three main types of group structure are formal, informal, and hybrid. Formal groups are created by an organization and have a clear set of rules and roles. Informal groups are not created by an organization but emerge spontaneously as people interact with each other. Friendships and study groups are examples of informal groups. Hybrid groups are a mix of formal and informal elements.
5. Group Decision-Making Process (Brainstorming, Nominal Group Technique, Delphi Technique, Majority Rule, Minority Rule, Unanimous Rule):
There are a number of different methods that groups can use to make decisions. Brainstorming is when members come up with as many ideas as possible without critiquing them. The nominal group technique is when members generate ideas independently and then share them with the group. The Delphi technique is when experts generate ideas independently and then anonymously share them with the group. Majority rule is when the group decides on an option that the majority of members agree on. Minority rule is when the group decides on an option that a minority of members agree on. Unanimous rule is when the group decides on an option that all members agree on.
6. Roles People Play in Groups (Leader, Follower, Manager, Member):
There are a number of different roles that people can play in groups. The leader is the individual who sets the direction for the group and motivates members to achieve the group’s goals. The follower is an individual who supports the leader and helps to carry out the leader’s vision. The manager is an individual who oversees the day-to-day operations of the group and ensures that members are working towards the group’s goals. The member is an individual who contributes to the group but does not have a specific role.
7. Decision-Making Styles (Authoritarian, Consultative, Group, Laissez-Faire):
There are a number of different decision-making styles that groups can use. Authoritarian style is when the leader makes decisions without input from other members. Consultative style is when the leader solicits input from other members but ultimately makes the decision himself. Group style is when the group comes to a consensus on a decision. Laissez-faire style is when the leader allows members to make their own decisions.
8. Tuckman’s Model of Small-Group Development (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing)
Tuckman’s model of small-group development is a four-stage model that describes how groups develop over time. The first stage is forming, when members are getting to know each other and trying to establish a common purpose. The second stage is storming, when members start to disagree with each other and conflict arises. The third stage is norming, when members start to work together and establish rules and procedures. The fourth stage is performing, when the group is functioning at its best and achieving its goals.
8a. Bruce Tuckman’s Additions to His Model (Adjourning)
Bruce Tuckman later added a fifth stage to his model, adjourning. This stage occurs when the group disbanded or members leave the group.
8b. Lewin’s Change Model (Unfreezing, Changing, Refreezing)
Lewin’s change model is a three-stage model that describes how groups make changes. The first stage is unfreezing, when the group realizes that a change needs to be made. The second stage is changing, when the group makes the actual change. The third stage is refreezing, when the group stabilizes and adapts to the new change.
9. Types of Teams (Functional, Cross-Functional, Self-Managed, Virtual):
There are a number of different types of teams that organizations can use. Functional teams are teams that are organized around a specific function, such as marketing or accounting. Cross-functional teams are teams that include members from different functions who work together on a specific project. Self-managed teams are teams where members are responsible for managing their own work. Virtual teams are teams where members work together online and may be located in different geographic areas.
10. Conflict Management Styles (Competing, Accommodating, Avoiding, Collaborating):
There are a number of different conflict management styles that groups can use. Competing is when individuals try to win at the expense of others. Accommodating is when individuals give up their own interests to please others. Avoiding is when individuals avoid conflict altogether. Collaborating is when individuals work together to find a solution that meets everyone’s needs.
11. Power in Groups (Expert, Referent, Legitimate, Reward, Coercive):
There are a number of different types of power that people can have in groups. Expert power is when individuals have power because of their expertise or knowledge. Referent power is when individuals have power because of their personal qualities or charisma. Legitimate power is when individuals have power because of their position in the group. Reward power is when individuals have power because they can give rewards to other members. Coercive power is when individuals have power because they can threaten or punish other members.
12. Group Processes ( brainstorming, nominal group technique, Delphi technique):
There are a number of different processes that groups can use to generate ideas or make decisions. Brainstorming is a process where members come up with ideas individually and then share them with the group. The nominal group technique is a process where members come up with ideas individually and then vote on them anonymously. The Delphi technique is a process where experts provide input on a problem or issue anonymously.
13. Problem-Solving Techniques (Systematic, Trial and Error, Heuristic, Brainstorming):
There are a number of different techniques that groups can use to solve problems. Systematic techniques are when groups follow a specific set of steps to solve a problem. Trial and error is when groups try different solutions until they find one that works. Heuristic is when groups use their experience and knowledge to come up with creative solutions. Brainstorming is when groups generate ideas individually and then share them with the group.
14. Creativity Techniques:
There are a number of different techniques that groups can use to generate ideas. Brainstorming is when members come up with ideas individually and then share them with the group. The nominal group technique is when members come up with ideas individually and then vote on them anonymously. The Delphi technique is when experts provide input on a problem or issue anonymously.
1. Definition of Leadership:
Leadership has been defined in many ways, but most simply it is the ability to motivate others to achieve a common goal. Leaders can be found in all walks of life and in every type of organization, from businesses to government agencies to non-profit organizations. The key traits that all leaders share are the ability to inspire and motivate others, provide direction and guidance, and make decisions.
2a. The Leadership Continuum:
The leadership continuum is a model that describes how leaders interact with their followers. At one end of the continuum is the autocratic leader, who makes all decisions without input from others. At the other end is the laissez-faire leader, who allows others to make decisions without any guidance or direction. In the middle is the participative leader, who involves others in the decision-making process.
2b. The Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness:
The path-goal theory of leader effectiveness is a model that describes how leaders can motivate followers to achieve a goal. The theory states that leaders must provide direction and guidance to followers, help them overcome obstacles, and provide support and resources.
3a. Transformational versus Transactional Leaders:
Transformational leaders are those who inspire others to achieve a higher level of performance. They do this by providing vision and setting ambitious goals. Transactional leaders, on the other hand, motivate their followers by offering rewards for meeting goals.
3b. Charismatic Leadership Theory:
The charismatic leadership theory states that leaders gain followers by appealing to their emotions and providing them with a sense of purpose. Followers of charismatic leaders are highly motivated and inspired to achieve the leader’s vision.
4a. The Managerial Grid Model:
The managerial grid model is a framework for understanding how leaders interact with their followers. The model has two dimensions: task orientation and people orientation. Leaders who are high in task orientation focus on getting the job done, while those who are high in people orientation focus on motivating and inspiring their followers.
4b. Leader-Member Exchange Theory:
The leader-member exchange theory is a model that describes the relationship between leaders and followers. The theory states that there are two types of relationships: in-group and out-group. In-group relationships are those in which the leader and follower share a mutual understanding and respect for each other. Out-group relationships are those in which the leader does not have a close relationship with the follower.
5a. Authentic Leadership:
Authentic leaders are those who lead with integrity and make decisions based on their values. They create a sense of trust and respect among their followers by being transparent and honest.
5b. Servant Leadership:
Servant leaders are those who lead by serving others. They put the needs of their followers first and help them develop their skills and abilities.
6. Gender Differences in Leadership Styles:
Studies have shown that there are differences in leadership styles between men and women. Women tend to be more collaborative and relationship-oriented, while men tend to be more task-oriented. These differences can be an asset in organizations if they are managed properly.
7. Cross-Cultural Leadership:
Cross-cultural leaders are those who are able to lead effectively in multiple cultures. They have a deep understanding of cultural norms and values, and they are able to adapt their leadership style to meet the needs of different cultures.
Leadership is the ability to motivate others to achieve a common goal. There are many different leadership styles, and the most effective leaders are those who are able to adapt their style to meet the needs of their followers. Leaders must also be aware of cultural differences and be able to lead effectively in multiple cultures.
IV. Social Processes in Organizations
1. Definition of Communication:
Communication is the process of sharing information between two or more individuals. The process can be verbal, nonverbal, written, or electronic.
2. The Communication Process model:
The communication process model has four basic components: sender, message, receiver, and feedback. The sender is the person who originates the message and the receiver is the person who receives the message. The message is the information that the sender wants to share with the receiver. Feedback is the response of the receiver to the message.
3. Barriers to Effective Communication:
There are several barriers to effective communication. These include noise, physical barriers, emotional barriers, language barriers, and cultural differences.
4. Improving Interpersonal Communication Skills:
There are several ways to improve interpersonal communication skills. These include attending workshops and seminars, reading books and articles on the subject, and practicing communication skills with friends and family.
5a. Listening Skills:
Listening is an important part of communication. Active listening involves trying to understand what the speaker is saying and paying attention to nonverbal cues.
5b. Verbal Message Skills:
Verbal messages should be clear and concise. The speaker should use words that are easy for the receiver to understand.
5c. Nonverbal Message Skills:
Nonverbal messages include facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice. They can reinforce or contradict the verbal message.
6a. Written Communication Skills:
Written communication should be clear and concise. The writer should use words that are easy for the reader to understand.
6b. Presentation Skills:
Presentations should be well-organized and structured. The presenter should focus on the main points and use visual aids to reinforce the message.
7. Cross-Cultural Communication:
Cross-cultural communication is a challenge because of differences in language, customs, and values. It is important to be aware of these differences and to make an effort to understand them.
8. Technology and Communication in Organizations:
Technology has revolutionized communication in organizations. Email, instant messaging, and video conferencing are just a few of the ways that technology has changed the way we communicate.
Communication is the process of sharing information between two or more individuals. The communication process model has four basic components: sender, message, receiver, and feedback. There are several barriers to effective communication, including noise, physical barriers, emotional barriers, language barriers, and cultural differences.
There are several ways to improve interpersonal communication skills, including attending workshops and seminars, reading books on the subject, and practicing communication skills with friends and family. Cross-cultural communication is a challenge because of differences in language, customs, and values.
It is important to be aware of these differences and to make an effort to understand them. Technology has revolutionized communication in organizations. Email, instant messaging, and video conferencing are just a few of the ways that technology has changed the way we communicate.
B. Network Analysis
1. Definition of Social Network Analysis (SNA):
SNA is the study of social relationships in order to identify patterns and trends in behavior. It is a quantitative approach that uses mathematical models to examine interactions between individuals, groups, and organizations.
2. The Structure of Workplace Relationships:
SNA can be used to examine the structure of workplace relationships. This includes understanding how people are connected to one another, what type of relationships they have, and how these relationships influence behavior.
3. How SNA Is Used in Organizations:
Organizations use SNA to understand the dynamics of employee behavior. This includes studying how information flows through an organization, how decisions are made, and how conflict is resolved. SNA can also be used to improve communication and collaboration within an organization.
SNA is a quantitative approach to studying social relationships. It can be used to examine the structure of workplace relationships, understand employee behavior, and improve communication and collaboration within an organization.
V. Organizational Processes
A. Organizational Change and Stress Management
1a. Definition of Organizational Change:
Organizational change can be defined as the process of making changes to an organization’s goals, structure, policies, procedures, or technologies in order to adapt to new environmental conditions or improve performance. Organizational change is often triggered by external factors such as new competition, regulatory changes, or economic conditions. It can also be driven by internal factors such as a need for greater efficiency, a desire to innovate, or a response to declining morale.
1b. Types of Organizational Change:
There are several different types of organizational change that can occur:
Structural change: This type of change involves making changes to the organization’s overall structure, such as its hierarchy or the way that work is divided up among employees.
Strategic change: This type of change involves making changes to the organization’s overall strategy, such as its goals, business model, or competitive positioning.
Technological change: This type of change involves introducing new technologies or processes into the organization.
Process change: This type of change involves making changes to the way that work is done within the organization, such as introducing new methods or tools.
Physical change: This type of change involves making changes to the physical layout of the workplace, such as adding new equipment or rearranging office space.
Cultural change: This type of change involves making changes to the organization’s culture, values, and norms.
2a. Factors That Drive Organizational Change:
There are two main factors that can drive organizational change: internal factors and external factors.
Internal factors: Internal factors are those that originate within the organization, such as a need for greater efficiency or a desire to innovate.
External factors: External factors are those that originate outside of the organization, such as new competition, regulatory changes, or economic conditions.
2b. Approaches or Models of Organizational Change:
There are several different approaches or models of organizational change that have been proposed:
Lewin’s three-step model: This model, also known as unfreezing-change-refreezing, proposes that change occurs in three stages: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. In the unfreezing stage, the current state of affairs is unsettled and people’s preconceptions about it are challenged. In the changing stage, new behaviors and ways of doing things are learned and adopted. In the refreezing stage, the new behaviors become habitual and the change is consolidated.
Kotter’s eight-step change model: This model, also known as leading change, proposes that change occurs in eight steps: creating a sense of urgency, forming a guiding coalition, developing a vision and strategy, communicating the vision, empowering others to act, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains and producing more change, and institutionalizing new approaches.
McKinsey 7-S framework: This framework proposes that there are seven elements that must be aligned in order for an organization to be effective: strategy, structure, systems, staff, style, skills, and shared values.
3a. Definition of Stress:
Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances. It can come from external factors such as work demands, family responsibilities, or financial problems. It can also come from internal factors such as anxiety, worry, or self-doubt. Stress can lead to physical symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, and difficulty sleeping. It can also lead to emotional symptoms such as irritability, depression, and anxiety.
3b. Types of Stress:
There are several different types of stress that can occur:
Acute stress: Acute stress is a short-term response to a demanding situation. It is the body’s natural way of preparing for action.
Chronic stress: Chronic stress is a long-term response to demanding circumstances. It can lead to physical and emotional health problems, such as heart disease, anxiety, and depression.
PPTstress: PPTstress is a type of stress that occurs when someone is exposed to too much information in too short a period of time. It can lead to information overload and decision paralysis.
4a. Definition of Conflict:
Conflict is a state of disharmony between two or more people or groups. It can arise from disagreement over values, beliefs, or interests. It can also arise from different ways of doing things, different goals or objectives, or different methods of achieving those goals or objectives. Conflict can lead to physical violence, emotional distress, and decreased productivity.
4b. Types of Conflict:
There are several different types of conflict that can occur:
Personality conflict: Personality conflict is a type of conflict that arises when two people have incompatible personality traits.
Value conflict: Value conflict is a type of conflict that arises when two people have different values or beliefs.
Interest conflict: Interest conflict is a type of conflict that arises when two people have different goals or objectives.
Task conflict: Task conflict is a type of conflict that arises when two people have different ways of doing things.
5a. Definition of Change:
Change is a process or an event that results in a transformation. It can be positive or negative, intentional or unintentional, gradual or sudden. Change can occur at the individual, group, or organizational level.
5b. Types of Change:
There are several different types of change that can occur:
Organizational change: Organizational change is a type of change that occurs at the organizational level. It can be planned or unplanned, and it can be imposed from the outside or generated from within the organization.
Individual change: Individual change is a type of change that occurs at the individual level.
B. Organizational Design
1. Definition of Organizational Design:
Organizational design is the process of creating a company’s structure. The purpose of organizational design is to increase efficiency and effectiveness within an organization. There are three main elements to organizational design: work specialization, departmentalization, and chain of command.
2. Basic Approaches to Organization Design (Functional, Divisional, Matrix):
There are three basic approaches to organization design: functional, divisional, and matrix.
The functional approach organizes the company by function. For example, all the marketing employees would be in one department and all the accounting employees would be in another department.
The divisional approach organizes the company by product or service. For example, all the employees who work on the company’s flagship product would be in one division and all the employees who work on the company’s second-best-selling product would be in another division.
The matrix approach is a combination of the functional and divisional approaches. In a matrix organization, employees report to both a functional manager and a divisional manager. For example, an employee who works on the company’s flagship product and is in the marketing department would report to both the marketing manager and the head of the flagship product division.
3. Contemporary Approaches to Organization Design (Network, Team, Virtual):
There are three contemporary approaches to organization design: network, team, and virtual.
The network approach organizes the company into a series of relationships with other companies. For example, a company that outsources its manufacturing to another company would have a network relationship with that manufacturing company.
The team approach organizes the company into teams of employees who work together to achieve a common goal. For example, a company might have a team of employees who work together to develop new products.
The virtual approach organizes the company around knowledge workers who work from home or other remote locations. For example, a company might have employees who work from home and only come into the office for meetings.
4. The Process of Organization Design:
Organizational design is a process that involves four steps:
a) Defining the business strategy: The first step in the process is to define the business strategy. The business strategy defines the overall direction of the company and what it wants to achieve.
b) Identifying the organizational structure that will best support the business strategy: The second step is to identify the organizational structure that will best support the business strategy. There are many different types of organizational structures, so it is important to choose one that will help the company achieve its goals.
c) Creating or redesigning the organization: The third step is to create or redesign the organization. This involves making decisions about things like work specialization, departmentalization, and chain of command.
d) Implementing the new organizational design: The fourth and final step is to implement the new organizational design. This involves putting the new structure in place and making sure that all employees understand it.
Summary of Organizational Design:
Organizational design is the process of creating a company’s structure. The purpose of organizational design is to increase efficiency and effectiveness within an organization. There are three main elements to organizational design: work specialization, departmentalization, and chain of command.
There are three basic approaches to organization design: functional, divisional, and matrix. There are three contemporary approaches to organization design: network, team, and virtual. The process of organizational design involves four steps: defining the business strategy, identifying the organizational structure that will best support the business strategy, creating or redesigning the organization, and implementing the new organizational design.
C. Organizational Culture
1a. Definition of Organizational Culture:
Organizational culture is the set of shared values, beliefs, and norms that shape an organization’s members’ attitudes and behavior. It defines an organization’s identity and influences the way its employees interact with each other and with customers, suppliers, and other people outside the organization.
1b. Characteristics of Organizational Culture:
There are five main characteristics of organizational culture: Innovative, Supportive, Defensive, Aggressive, and Permanent.
Innovative cultures encourage creativity and risk-taking in pursuit of new ideas and ways of doing things. This type of culture is often found in organizations that are leaders in their industries or are trying to become leaders.
Supportive cultures value teamwork and cooperation. They emphasize employees’ needs and provide resources and support to help employees be successful. This type of culture is often found in organizations that are focused on providing excellent customer service.
Defensive cultures are highly bureaucratic and emphasize rules, regulations, and procedures. They seek to minimize risk and prevent mistakes. This type of culture is often found in government organizations or in organizations that operate in highly regulated industries.
Aggressive cultures are results-oriented and competitive. They emphasize high standards and expect employees to meet or exceed those standards. This type of culture is often found in sales-driven organizations or in organizations that operate in highly competitive industries.
Permanent cultures are those that have been around for a long time and are not likely to change. They tend to be traditional and hierarchical in nature. This type of culture is often found in family-owned businesses or in organizations that have been in existence for many years.
2a. Functions of Organizational Culture:
Organizational culture serves four main functions: socialization, control, commitment, and identity.
Socialization is the process by which new employees learn the values and norms of an organization. It helps new employees fit into the organization and become productive members.
Control is the process by which organizational values and norms are enforced. It helps ensure that employees behave in ways that are consistent with the organization’s goals and objectives.
Commitment is the process by which employees identify with the organization and its values. It helps ensure that employees are motivated to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives.
Identity is the process by which an organization defines itself and its members. It helps employees feel a sense of belonging and pride in their work.
2b. How an organization’s culture is created:
Organizational culture is created through the shared values, beliefs, and norms of its members. These shared values, beliefs, and norms are passed down from one generation of employees to the next and are reinforced through socialization, control, commitment, and identity processes.
3a. Organizational Subcultures:
Organizations can have subcultures that are based on ethnicity, geography, or profession. Ethnic subcultures are those that are based on shared cultural values and beliefs. Geographic subcultures are those that are based on shared regional values and beliefs. Professional subcultures are those that are based on shared values and beliefs within a particular profession.
3b. How subcultures can be helpful:
Subcultures can be helpful in creating a sense of community and identity within an organization. They can also help new employees learn the values and norms of the organization.
4. The Impact of Organizational Culture:
Organizational culture has a strong influence on employee behavior. Employees who share the same values and beliefs as the organization are more likely to behave in ways that are consistent with the organization’s goals and objectives. Conversely, employees who do not share the same values and beliefs as the organization are more likely to behave in ways that are inconsistent with the organization’s goals and objectives.
5. Organizational Culture Change:
Organizational culture change can be difficult to achieve. It requires a concerted effort by leaders to create a new set of shared values, beliefs, and norms. It also requires employees to be willing to embrace the new culture. Change can be difficult, but it is possible with the right mix of leadership, commitment, and effort.
D. Social Media in Organizations
1. Definition of Social Media: Social media is a type of electronic communication (such as websites for social networking and microblogging) through which people create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos).
2. How Social Media Is Used in Organizations: Social media can be used in organizations in a number of ways, such as for marketing and public relations, employee recruitment and retention, customer service and satisfaction, knowledge management and sharing, and collaboration among employees.
3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Social Media in Organizations: Some advantages of using social media in organizations include increased visibility for the organization, improved communication among employees and with customers/clients, and greater opportunities for collaboration. Some disadvantages of using social media in organizations include decreased productivity, increased chances for security breaches, and the potential for negative publicity.
4. Guidelines for Using Social Media in Organizations: Some guidelines for using social media in organizations include ensuring that only authorized employees have access to the organization’s social media accounts, creating policies and procedures for employee use of social media, and monitoring employee use of social media.
Social media can be a useful tool for organizations when used correctly. However, there are some risks associated with using social media that organizations need to be aware of.
1a. Definition of Downsizing:
Downsizing is the process of reducing the number of employees in an organization. It can be done through voluntary or involuntary means, and can be done for a variety of reasons including financial distress, changing customer needs, increased competition, technological advances, etc.
1b. Reasons for Downsizing:
There are a number of reasons why an organization may choose to downsize. Some of the most common include:
– Financial distress: When an organization is facing financial difficulties, downsizing can be used as a way to cut costs and improve bottom-line performance.
– Changing customer needs: As customer needs change, organizations may need to adjust their workforce to meet those needs. For example, if customers are moving away from a product or service, downsizing may be necessary to align the workforce with declining demand.
– Increased competition: In today’s business environment, organizations are under pressure to constantly innovate and stay ahead of the competition. This can often lead to the need for downsizing in order to invest in new product development or other initiatives that will help the organization remain competitive.
– Technological advances: As technology evolves, some jobs may become obsolete. For example, as automated systems become more prevalent, organizations may need to downsize their workforce in order to cut costs associated with employee salaries and benefits.
2a. Consequences of Downsizing:
Downsizing can have a number of consequences for both employees and organizations. Some of the most common include:
– Employee morale: Downsizing can have a negative impact on employee morale. When employees are worried about their job security, they may be less engaged and productive. This can lead to a decline in overall organizational performance.
– Job insecurity: One of the main consequences of downsizing is job insecurity. When employees are worried about being laid off, they may be less likely to take risks or innovate. This can limit an organization’s ability to adapt and grow in the face of change.
– Organizational identity: Another consequence of downsizing is that it can damage an organization’s identity. When long-time employees are let go, it can change the culture and values of an organization.
1. Organizational behavior is the study of how people interact within groups.
2. Organizations are composed of individuals who have different goals, backgrounds, and personalities.
3. To be successful, organizations must manage their resources effectively and efficiently.
4. There are two types of organizational structures: functional and divisional.
5. The primary goal of an organization is to maximize shareholder value.
6. Organizational culture is the shared values, beliefs, and norms that guide employee behavior.
7. Organizational climate is the overall feeling or tone that employees have about their work environment.
8. Employee engagement is a measure of how committed and involved employees are in their work.
9. Organizational behavior can be used to improve individual and group performance.
10. There are four main methods of organizational behavior:observation, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups.
Glossary of Key Terms:
Organizational Behavior: The study of how people interact within groups.
Organizational Structure: The way in which an organization is arranged, including the division of labor, departments, and hierarchy.
Functional Structure: An organizational structure in which employees are grouped together by function, such as marketing or finance.
Divisional Structure: An organizational structure in which employees are grouped together by product or service line.
Matrix Structure: An organizational structure in which employees report to more than one manager.
Shareholder Value: The monetary value that shareholders receive from investing in a company.
7.Organizational Culture: The shared values, beliefs, and norms that guide employee behavior.
Organizational Climate: The overall feeling or tone that employees have about their work environment.
Employee Engagement: A measure of how committed and involved employees are in their work.
Motivation: The factors that drive employee behavior, such as salary, benefits, and job satisfaction.
Organizational Communication: The sharing of information between employees and managers.
Downward Communication: Communication from management to employees.
Upward Communication: Communication from employees to management.
Horizontal Communication: Communication between coworkers.
External Communication: Communication with people outside of the organization, such as customers or suppliers.
Organizational Change: A change in the way an organization is structured or the way it operates.
Employee Resistance: Negative reactions from employees to organizational change.
Social Media: Online platforms that allow users to share information and interact with each other, such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.
Ethics: Moral principles that govern a person’s or group’s behavior.
Diversity: The inclusion of people from different backgrounds and experiences in the workplace.
Social psychology: The study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the presence of others.
Organizational theory: The study of how organizations are structured and how they operate.
Organizational psychology: The study of how people interact with and within organizations.
Organizational ecology: The study of how organizations adapt to their environment.
Organizational behavior: The study of how people behave in organizations.
Organizational life: The study of the different stages that an organization goes through over time.
maximized technical efficiency: The goal of an organization to operate as efficiently as possible.
institutional theory: A theory that explains how organizations change over time in response to external pressures.
organization theory: A theory that focuses on how organizations are structured and how they operate.
scientific management: A theory that focuses on how to optimize work processes in order to achieve maximum efficiency.
ethical behavior: Behavior that is morally correct and in accordance with the values of an organization.
organizational effectiveness: The ability of an organization to achieve its goals.
Organizational decision making: The process by which organizations make decisions about how to allocate resources and manage operations.
Modifying compensation structures: Changing the way that employees are paid in order to incentivize them to improve their performance.
Leader behavior: The actions and decisions that leaders take in order to guide and motivate employees.
Social sciences: A branch of science that studies human behavior.
Qualitative research: A type of research that uses data that cannot be measured quantitatively, such as interviews or observations.
Cultural explanations: Explanations for behavior that focus on the role of culture and socialization.
Contingency theory: A theory that states that there is no one best way to organize a company, and that the best structure depends on the specific situation.
Contributing disciplines: Areas of study that contribute to our understanding of organizational behavior, such as psychology, sociology, and economics.
Employee performance: The level of output that an employee produces.
Hiring process: The process by which organizations select employees.
Graduate programs: Academic programs that offer advanced degrees.
Manufacturing techniques: The methods used to produce goods and services.
Workplace incivility: rude or disrespectful behavior in the workplace.
Organizational roles: The different positions that people hold in an organization.
Compensation structures: The way that employees are paid.
Industrial revolution: A period of time in which there was a dramatic increase in the use of technology for manufacturing.
Work stress: The feeling of being under too much pressure at work.
Work environments: The places where people work.
Better conceptualization: A more accurate understanding.
Mary Parker Follett: A theorist who argued that organizations should be designed to promote cooperation and integration.